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You can access here the new version of Programita with manual



About Programita

Objects of finite size

Publications using Programita


Programita, a software for point pattern analysis in ecology


Programita is a comprehensive software package for conducting spatial point pattern analysis in ecology. I tailored Programita to accommodate the needs of “real world” applications in ecology and developed the different modules in response to my own research questions and to requests of colleagues and students who have approached me with their specific research problems in mind. Originally, I developed Programita for my graduate courses  “Patrones espaciales en ecología: modelos y análisis”, at the Escuela para Graduados, Facultad de Agronomia, University Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Ten years after its launch in the 2004 Oikos Mini review (Wiegand and Moloney 2004), Programita has considerably grown and now contains a variety of statistical methods for most of the point pattern data types which are relevant in ecological applications, including

  • univariate patterns (i.e., one type of points)

  • bivariate patterns (i.e., two types of points such as two species of trees)

  • qualitatively marked patterns (i.e., one type of point with a qualitative mark such as surviving vs. dead)

  • multivariate patterns (i.e., several types of points such as a forest tree community)

  • multivariate patterns with a matrix of pairwise dissimilarities between types of points

  • quantitatively marked patterns (a pattern augmented with quantitative marks such as size)

  • objects with finite size and real shape (cases for which the point approximation does not hold)

Programita offers for each of these data types the most appropriate summary statistics:

  • univariate patterns [pair correlation function g(r), O-ring statistic O(r), L-function L(r), the K2 function K2(r), the distribution functions Dk(r)of the distances to the kth nearest neighbor, the spherical contact distribution Hs(r), the mean distance to the kth neighbor nn(k), and inhomogeneous g- and L-functions]

  • bivariate patterns [pair correlation function g12(r), O-ring statistic O12(r), L-function L12(r), the K2 function K212(r), the distribution functions of the distances to the kth nearest neighbor Dk12(r), the mean distance to the kth neighbor nn12(k)]

  • multivariate patterns [spatially explicit Simpson index β(r), community mean ISAR function, species-area relationship SAR(r)]

  • multivariate patterns with dissimilarity matrix [phylogenetic Simpson index βphy(r), phylogenetic mark correlation function kd(r), mean phylogenetic ISAR function , mean rISAR function]

  • qualitatively marked patterns [mark connection functions pij(r) and various test functions based on pair correlation or K-functions]

  • quantitatively marked patterns [various normalized and non-normalized mark correlation functions kt(r)]

  • objects with finite size and real shape [g(r), L(r), g12(r), L12(r)]

and the most important null models for ecological applications, which often allow for consideration of an spatially-varying intensity function λ(x), and a variety of point process models describing clustering.

Programita allows you to

Requests for Programita and a draft version of the user manual (with extensive examples) can be soon made here. Programita will be freely available from this site.



Extending point pattern analysis for objects of finite size and irregular shape

The Programita software allows you to perform analysis analogous to point-pattern analysis which considers the finite size and irregular shape of objects (e.g., plants) and to compare the results with that of the conventional point approximation. The plants are approximated by using an underlying grid and may occupy several adjacent grid cells depending on their size and shape. Null models correspond to that of point pattern analysis but need to be modified to account for the finite size and irregular shape of plants.

Left: categorical map showing individuals of two shrub species.  Right: conventional point approximation where each shrub is approximated by its centre of mass.



Here you can download my article describing the analysis of objects of finite size and irregular shape:

  • Wiegand, T., Kissling, W.D., Cipriotti, P.A., and Aguiar, M.R. 2006. Extending point pattern analysis to objects of finite size and irregular shape. Journal of Ecology 94: 825-837 Abstract and pdf

About Programita

Objects of finite size

Publications using Programita

Publications that use Programita


Wiegand T., and K. A. Moloney 2004. Rings, circles and null-models for point pattern analysis in ecology. Oikos 104: 209-229.

Camarero, J., Gutiérrez, E., Fortin, M. 2005. Spatial patterns of tree recruitment in a relict population of Pinus uncinata. Forest expansion through stratified diffusion. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1979-1992

Cipriotti, P. A. and R. M. Aguiar. 2005. Effects of grazing on patch structure in a semi-arid two-phase vegetation mosaic. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 57–66

Jepsen, J.U., C.J. Topping, P. Odderskær, P.N. Andersen. 2005. Evaluating consequences of land-use strategies on wildlife populations using multiple-species predictive scenarios. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 105: 581–594.

Minakawa N, Munga S, Atieli F, Mushinziamana E, Zhou G, Githeko AK, Yan G. 2005. Spatial distribution of Anopheline larval habitats in the western Kenyan highlands: effect of land cover types and topography. American Journal of Topical Medicine and Hygiene. 73:157–165.

Riginos, C., S. J. Milton, and T. Wiegand. 2005. Context-dependent negative and positive interactions between adult shrubs and seedlings in a semi-arid shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:331-340.

Splechtn B E., Gratzer G, Black B A.2005. Disturbance history of a European old-growth mixed-species forest – A spatial dendro-ecological analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 511–522.

Birkhofer, K., J.R. Henschel, and S. Scheu. 2006. Spatial-pattern analysis in a territorial spider: evidence for multi-scale effects. Ecography 29: 641-648.

Getzin, S., C. Dean, F. He, T. Trofymow, K. Wiegand, and T. Wiegand. 2006 Spatial patterns and competition of tree species in a chronosequence of Douglas-fir forest on Vancouver Island. Ecography 29: 671-682

Rodriguez A, Garcia AM, Cervera F, et al. 2006. Landscape and anti-predation determinants of nest-site selection, nest distribution and productivity in a Mediterranean population of Long-eared Owls Asio otus. IBIS 148: 133-145

Troupin, D., R. Nathan, G. G. Vendramin. 2006. Analysis of spatial genetic structure in an expanding Pinus halepensis population reveals development of fine-scale genetic clustering over time. Molecular Ecology 15: 3617–3630.

Wiegand, T., Kissling, W.D., Cipriotti, P.A., and Aguiar, M.R. 2006. Extending point pattern analysis to objects of finite size and irregular shape. Journal of Ecology 94: 825-837.

Birkhofer, K. S. Scheu, and D. H. Wise. 2007. Small-scale spatial pattern of web-building ppiders (Araneae) in alfalfa: relationship to disturbance from cutting, prey availability, and intraguild interactions. Environmental Entomology 36: 801–810.

Chung, M.Y, and J. D. Nason. 2007. Spatial demographic and genetic consequences of harvesting within populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii. Biological Conservation 137: 125-137

Chung, M.Y, Nash, J.N., and M.G. Chung. 2007. Effects of population succession on demographic and genetic processes: predictions and tests in the daylily Hemerocallis thunbergii (Liliaceae) . Molecular Ecology 16: 2816–2829.

Feagin, R.A., and X.B. Wu. 2007. The spatial patterns of functional groups and sand dune plant community succession. Journal of Rangeland Ecology and Management 60: 417-425

Getzin, S., and K. Wiegand. 2007. Asymmetric tree growth at the stand level: Random crown patterns and the response to slope. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 165-174

Hao, Z, J. Zhang, B. Song, J. Ye and B. Li. 2007. Vertical structure and spatial associations of dominant tree species in an old-growth temperate forest. Forest Ecology and Management 252: 1-11

Jacquemyn, H., R. Brys, K. Vandepitte, O. Honnay, I. Roldán-Ruiz and T. Wiegand. 2007. A spatially-explicit analysis of seedling recruitment in the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea. New Phytologist 176: 448–459

Lee, A. C, R. M. Lucas. 2007. A LiDAR-derived canopy density model for tree stem and crown mapping in Australian forests. Remote Sensing of Environment 111: 493–518

Ramsay, P. M., and R M. Fotherby. 2007. Implications of the spatial pattern of Vigur's Eyebright (Euphrasia vigursii) for heathland management. Basic and Applied Ecology 8: 242-251

Stockholm, D., R. Benchaouir, J. Picot, P. Rameau, T. M. A. Neildez, G. Landini, C. Laplace-Builhé, and A. Paldi. 2007. The origin of phenotypic heterogeneity in a clonal cell population in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2007; 2(4): e394.

Watson, D.M., D. A. Roshier, and T. Wiegand. 2007. Spatial ecology of a parasitic shrub: patterns and predictions. Austral Ecology 32: 359-369.

Wiegand, T, C.V.S. Gunatilleke, and I.A.U.N. Gunatilleke. 2007. Species associations in a heterogeneous Sri Lankan Dipterocarp forest. The American Naturalist 170 E77–E95.

Wiegand, T, C.V.S. Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. Gunatilleke, and T. Okuda. 2007. Analyzing the spatial structure of a Sri Lankan tree species with multiple scales of clustering. Ecology 88: 3088–3102.

Baldi, G, MD Nosetto, R Aragón, F Aversa, JM Paruelo, and E.G. Jobbágy. 2008. Long-term Satellite NDVI Data Sets: Evaluating Their Ability to Detect Ecosystem Functional Changes in South America. Sensors 8: 5397-5425.

Blanco, P.D., C. M. Rostagno, H. F. del Valle, A. M. Beeskow, and T. Wiegand. 2008. Grazing impacts in vegetated dune fields: predictions from spatial pattern analysis. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61: 194-203

Chung, M. Y. & Chung, M. G. 2008: Conservation genetics of the endangered terrestrial orchid Pogonia minor in South Korea. Annales Botanici Fennici 45: 455–464.

Chung, M. Y. 2008. Variation in demographic and fine-scale genetic structure with population-history stage of Hemerocallis taeanensis (Liliaceae) across the landscape. Ecological Research 23: 83-90.

Chung, M. Y., and C.-W. Park. 2008. Fixation of alleles and depleted levels of genetic variation within populations of the endangered lithophytic orchid Amitostigma gracile (Orchidaceae) in South Korea: implications for conservation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 272:119-130.

De Luis, M., J. Raentós, T. Wiegand, and J. C. González-Hidalgo. 2008. Temporal and spatial differentiation in seedling emergence may promote species coexistence in Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Ecography 31: 620-629

Djossa, B.A., Fahr, J., Wiegand, T., Ayihouénou, B.E., Kalko, E.K.V., and B. A. Sinsin. 2008 Land use impact on Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaerten. stand structure and distribution patterns: a comparison of Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari in Atacora district in Benin. Agroforestry Systems 72: 205-220.

Felinks, B. and T. Wiegand. 2008. Analysis of spatial pattern in early stages of primary succession on former lignite mining sites. Journal of Vegetation Science 19:267-276

Getzin, S., T. Wiegand, K. Wiegand, and F. He. 2008. Heterogeneity influences spatial patterns and demographics in forest stands. Journal of Ecology 96: 807-820.

Giesselmann, U.C., T. Wiegand, J. Meyer, R. Brandl, and M. Vogel. 2008. Spatial patterns in the sociable weaver (Philetairus socius). Austral Ecology 32:359 - 369.

Lawes, M.J.; Griffiths, M.E.; Midgley, J.J.; Boudreau, S.; Eeley, H.A.C. and C. A. Chapman. 2008. Tree spacing and area of competitive influence do not scale with tree size in an African rainforest. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 729-738

Meyer, K.M., Ward, D., Wiegand, K. & Moustakas, A. 2008. Multi-proxy evidence for competition between savanna woody species. Perspectives in Ecology, Evolution and Systematic 10: 63-72

Moustakasa, A, K. Wiegand, S. Getzin, D. Ward, K. M. Meyer, M. Guenther, and K.-H. Mueller. 2008. Spacing patterns of an Acacia tree in the Kalahari over a 61-year period: How clumped becomes regular and vice versa. Acta Oecologica 33:355-364

Rosental, G., and D. Lederbogen. 2008. Response of the clonal plant Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag. to extensive grazing. FLORA 203:141-151.

Schmidt, J. P. 2008. Sex ratio and spatial pattern of males and females in the dioecious sandhill shrub, Ceratiola ericoides ericoides (Empetraceae) Michx. Plant Ecology: 196: 281-288.

Biganzoli, F., T. Wiegand and W.B. Batista. 2009. Fire-mediated interactions between shrubs in a South American temperate savannah. Oikos 118: 1383-1395

Fajardo, A. and M. E. Gonzalez. 2009. Replacement patterns and species coexistence in an Andean Araucaria-Nothofagus forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 1176–1190

Jacquemyn, H., Wiegand, T., Vandepitte, K., Brys, R., Roldán-Ruiz, I. and O. Honnay. 2009. Multi-generational analysis of spatial structure in the deceptive orchid Orchis mascula. Journal of Ecology 97:206–216.

McCormick, MK, Whigham, DF, O’Neill, JP, Becker, JJ, Werner, S., Taylor, DL, Rasmussen, HN, Bruns, TD. 2009. Abundance and distribution of Corallorhiza odontorhiza reflects variations in climate and ectomycorrhizae. Ecological Monographs 79:619-635.

Melles, S, D Badzinski, MJ Fortin, F Csillag, and K Lindsay. 2009. Disentangling habitat and social drivers of nesting patterns in songbirds. Landscape Ecology 24:4, 519-531.

Munroe, D.M., and T. Noda. 2009. Spatial pattern of rocky intertidal barnacle recruitment: comparison over multiple tidal levels and years. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89 : 345-353

Pereira, M., Figueiredo, D. 2009. Effects of the Alqueva dam reservoir on the distribution of Steppe Birds. Physical Geography, 30: 43-63.

Rayburn, A. and A. Schulte. 2009. Landscape change in an agricultural watershed in the U.S. Midwest. Landscape and Urban Planning 93: 132-141

Rossi, J.-P., Samalens, J.-C., Guyon, D., van Halder, I., Jactel, H., Menassieu, P., and D. Piou. 2009. Multiscale spatial variation of the bark beetle Ips sexdentatus damage in a pine plantation forest (Landes de Gascogne, Southwestern France). Forest Ecology and Management 257:1551-1557

Salinas-Melgoza, A., V. Salinas-Melgoz, and Katherine Renton. 2009. Factors Influencing Nest Spacing of a Secondary Cavity-Nesting Parrot: Habitat Heterogeneity and Proximity of Conspecifics. The Condor 111:305–313

Schtickzelle, N., Fjerdingstad, E.J., Chaine, A., and J. Clobert, 2009. Cooperative social clusters are not destroyed by dispersal in a ciliate. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 251

Wiegand, T, A. Huth., and I. Martínez. 2009. Recruitment in tropical tree species: revealing complex spatial patterns. The American Naturalist 174: E106 - E140

Xu, X., T.D. Harwood, M. Pautasso, and M.J. Jeger. 2009. Spatio-temporal analysis of an invasive plant pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum) in England and Wales. Ecography 32:504 - 516

Yu, H. T. Wiegand, X. Yang, and L. Ci. 2009. The impact of fire and density-dependent mortality on the spatial patterns of a pine forest in the Hulun Buir sandland, Inner Mongolia, China. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 2098-2107.

Zhang, J., Z. Hao, I-f. Sun, B. Song, J. Ye, B. Li, and X. Wang. 2009. Density dependence on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China. Annuals of Forest Science 66: 205-213

Zhu, Y., X. Mi, H. Ren and K. Ma 2009.Density dependence is prevalent in a heterogeneous subtropical forest. Oikos 119: 109-119

Augspurger C., Karwautz C., Mußmann M., Daims H. & Battin T.J. 2010. Drivers of bacterial colonization patterns in stream biofilms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 72: 47-57.

Batllori, E., J. J. Camarero, and E. Gutierrez. 2010. Current regeneration patterns at the tree line in the Pyrenees indicate similar recruitment processes irrespective of the past disturbance regime

Birkhofer, K., S. Scheu, and T. Wiegand. 2010. Assessing spatiotemporal predator-prey patterns in heterogeneous habitats. Basic and Applied Ecology 11:486-494

Castagneri, D., E. Lingua., G. Vacchiano., P. Nola and R. Motta. 2010. Diachronic analysis of individual-tree mortality in a Norway spruce stand in the eastern Italian Alps. Annals of Forest Science 67: 304

Fajardo, A. and E.J.B. McIntire. 2010. Merged trees in second-growth, fire-origin forests in Patagonia, Chile: positive spatial association patterns and their ecological implications. American Journal of Botany 97:1424-1430

Fedriani, J.M. T. Wiegand, and M. Delibes. 2010. Spatial pattern of adult trees and the mammal-generated seed rain in the Iberian pear. Ecography 33: 545-555

Field, D L, D J Ayre, R J Whelan and A G Young. 2010. Patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow in hybrid zones of the rare Eucalyptus aggregata and common E. rubida. Heredity

Hanan, E.J., Ross, M.S., Ruiz, P.L. and J.P. Sah. 2010 Multi-Scaled Grassland-Woody Plant Dynamics in the Heterogeneous Marl Prairies of the Southern Everglades. Ecosystems 13, 1256-1274.

Jacquemyn, H., P. Endels, O. Honnay, and T. Wiegand. 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of seedling recruitment, mortality and persistence into later life stages in the rare Primula vulgaris. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 431–440

Jacquemyn, H., P. Endels, O. Honnay, and T. Wiegand. 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of seedling recruitment, mortality and persistence into later life stages in the rare Primula vulgaris. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:431–440

Linares, J. C.; Camarero, J. J.; Bowker, M. A.; Ochoa, V., and J. A. Carreira. 2010. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo. Oecología 164: 1107-1119.

López, R.P. 2010. Spatial pattern analysis of dominant species in the Prepuna: Gaining insight into community dynamics in the semi-arid, subtropical Andes. Journal of Arid Environments 74:1534-1539

Martínez, I., T. Wiegand, F. Glez. Taboada, and J. R. Obeso. 2010. Spatial associations among tree species in a temperate forest community in North-western Spain. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 456-465

Mencuccini, M. et al. 2010. A quantitative and statistically robust method for the determination of xylem conduit spatial distribution. American Journal of Botany 97: 1247-1259

Myster, R. W. and M. P. Malahy 2010. Tornado effects on damage, resprouting and spatial heterogeneity in the Cross Timbers ecotone of Oklahoma, USA. Journal of Plant Ecology 3: 157-163

Nakagawa, M. Fine-scale genetic structure within plots of Polygalareinii (Polygalaceae) having an ant-dispersal seed. 2010. Journal of Plant Research 123:355-362

Pringle RM, Doak DF, Brody AK, Jocqué R, and TM Palmer. 2010. Spatial Pattern Enhances Ecosystem Functioning in an African Savanna. PLoS Biol 8(5)

Raventós, J., T. Wiegand, and M. De Luis. 2010. The spatial segregation hypothesis works: nine-year survivorship data in a Mediterranean fire-prone shrubland show that interspecific and density-dependent spatial interactions dominate. Ecology 91:2110-2120

Schöning, C., C. Csuzdi, W. Kinuthia, J. O. Ogutu. 2010. Influence of driver ant swarm raids on earthworm prey densities in the Mount Kenya forest: implications for prey population dynamics and colony migrations. Insectes Sociaux 57:1, 73-82

Svoboda, M., et al. 2010. Natural development and regeneration of a Central European montane spruce forest. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 707-714.

Szewczyk, J. and Szewczyk. J. 2010. Spatial and temporal variability of natural regeneration in a temperate old-growth forest. Annals of Forest Science 67: online first

Wang, X., T. Wiegand, Z. Hao, B. Li, J. Ye, and J. Zhang. 2010. Species associations in an old-growth temperate forest in north-eastern China. Journal of Ecology 98:674–686 .

Zhang ZH, Hu G, Zhu JD, Luo DH, Ni J. 2010. Spatial patterns and interspecific associations of dominant tree species in two old-growth karst forests, SW China. Ecological Research,25: 1151-1160

Zhu Y, Mi XC, Ren H, Ma KP. 2010. Density dependence is prevalent in a heterogeneous subtropical forest. Oikos, 119: 109–119.

Alvarez L, Epstein HE, Li J, and G. Okin. 2012. Spatial patterns of grasses and shrubs in an arid grassland environment. Ecosphere 2:art103

Chen, J., J. Liu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, and X. Yu. 2011. The structure and spatial patterns of three desert shrub communities in the western Ordos Plateau: Implications for biodiversity conservation. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 9: 714-722.

Chung, M. Y., J. D. Nason, M. G. Chung. Significant demographic and fine-scale genetic structure in expanding and senescing populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 98:2027-2039.

Getzin, S., M. Worbes, T. Wiegand and K. Wiegand. 2011. Size dominance regulates tree spacing more than competition within height classes in tropical Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27: 93-102

Gurevitz JM, Ceballos LA, Gaspe MS, Alvarado-Otegui JA, Enríquez GF, et al. 2011. Factors Affecting Infestation by Triatoma infestans in a Rural Area of the Humid Chaco in Argentina: A Multi-Model Inference Approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(10): e1349.

Gouwakinnou, G. N., Lykke, A. M., Djossa, A. B., Sinsin, B. 2011. Folk perception of sexual dimorphism, sex ratio and spatial repartition: implications for population dynamics of Sclerocarya birrea [(A.Rich) Hochst] populations in Benin, West Africa. Agroforestry Systems 82: 25-35

Lamedica, S., Lingua, E., Popa, I., Motta, R. & Carrer, M. 2011. Spatial structure in four Norway spruce stands with different management history in the Alps and Carpathians. Silva Fennica 45: 865–873.

Raventós, J., E. Mujica, T. Wiegand, and A. Bonet. 2011. Analyzing the spatial structure of Broughtonia cubensis (Orchidaceae) populations in the dry forests of Guanahacabibes, Cuba. Biotropica 43: 173-182

Vacchiano, G., D. Castagneri, F. Meloni, E. Lingu, R. Motta. 2011. Point pattern analysis of crown-to-crown interactions inmountain forests. Procedia Environmental Sciences 7: 269–274

Castilla, A.R., Wiegand, T., Alonso, C. et al. 2012. Disturbance-dependent spatial distribution of sexes in a gynodioecious understory shrub. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 405-413.

Choo, J., Juenger, T.E., Simpson, B.B. 2012. Consequences of frugivore-mediated seed dispersal for the spatial and genetic structures of a neotropical palm. Molecular Ecology 21: 1019-1031.

Fischer, M. A., Di Bella, C. M., Jobbagy, E. G. 2012. Fire patterns in central semiarid Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 78: 161-168.

Garbarino, M., E. Borgogno Mondino, E. Lingua, T.A. Nagel, V. Dukić, Z. Govedar, and R. Motta. 2012. Gap disturbances and regeneration patterns in a Bosnianold-growth forest: a multispectral remote sensingand ground-based approach. Annals of Forest Science 69:617 – 625

Goiran, S.B., Aranibar, J.N., Gomez, M.L. 2012. Heterogeneous spatial distribution of traditional livestock settlements and their effects on vegetation cover in arid groundwater coupled ecosystems in the Monte Desert (Argentina). Journal of Arid Environments 87: 188-197.

Herrero-Jauregui, C., Sist, P., Casado, M.A. 2012. Population structure of two low-density neotropical tree species under different management systems. Forest Ecology and Management 280: 31-39.

Jacquemyn, H., R Brys, O. Honnay, I. Roldán-Ruiz, B. Lievens, and T. Wiegand. 2012. Non-random distribution of orchids reflects different mycorrhizal association patterns in a hybrid zone of three Orchis species. New Phytologist 193: 454-464

Jacquemyn, H., R. Brys, B. Lievens, and T. Wiegand. 2012. Spatial variation in below-ground seed germination and divergent mycorrhizal associations correlate with spatial segregation of three co-occurring orchid species. Journal of Ecology 100: 1328-1337

Kay, J.N., M.W. Chu, and J.R. Sanes. 2012. MEGF10 and MEGF11 mediate homotypic interactions required for mosaic spacing of retinal neurons. Nature 483: 465–469

La Manna, L., Matteucci, S.D. 2012. Spatial and temporal patterns at small scale in Austrocedrus chilensis diseased forests and their effect on disease progression. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1487-1499.

Lan, G., Getzin, S., Wiegand, T. et al. 2012. Spatial distribution and interspecific associations of tree species in a tropical seasonal rain forest of China. PLOS ONE 7: e46074.

Ledo, A., Montes, F., Condes, S. 2012. Different spatial organisation strategies of woody plant species in a montane cloud forest. Acta Oecologia 38: 49-57.

Marzano R, Lingua E, and M. Garbarino. 2012. Post-fire effects and short-term regeneration dynamics following high-severity crown fires in a Mediterranean forest. iForest 5: 93-100.

Myster, R.W. and M.P. Malahy. 2012. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling. Int. J. Trop. Biol. 60: 1015-1023

Niggemann, M.,T. Wiegand, J.J. Robledo-Arnuncio, and R. Bialozyt. 2012. Marked point pattern analysis on genetic paternity data for estimation and uncertainty assessment of pollen dispersal kernels. Journal of Ecology 100: 264-276.

Paffetti, D., Travaglini, D., Buonamici, A. et al. 2012. The influence of forest management on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand structure and genetic diversity. Forest Ecology and Management 284: 34-44.

Pillay, T., Ward, D. 2012. Spatial pattern analysis and competition between Acacia karroo trees in humid savannas. Plant Ecology 213: 1609-1619.

Queenborough, S.A., Metz, M.R., Wiegand, T. et al. 2012. Palms, peccaries and perturbations: widespread effects of small-scale disturbance in tropical forests. BMC Ecology 12: Article Number: 3.

Raventós, J., T. Wiegand, F. T. Maestre, and M. De Luis. 2012. A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire. Acta Oecologica 38: 17-23.

Rayburn A. P. and T. Wiegand. 2012. Individual Species-Area Relationships and spatial patterns of species diversity in a Great Basin, semi-arid shrubland. Ecography 35:341-347.

Rodríguez-Pérez, J., T. Wiegand, and A. Traveset. 2012. Adult proximity and frugivore activity structure plant populations – spatial patterns after the disperser’s loss. Functional Ecology 26: 1221-1229.

Vercken, E., B. Sinervo, and J. Clobert. 2012. The importance of a good neighborhood: dispersal decisions in juvenile common lizards are based on social environment. Behavioral Ecology 23: 1059-1067.

Wang, Y., Camarero, J.J., Luo, T. et al. 2012. Spatial patterns of Smith fir alpine treelines on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau support that contingent local conditions drive recent treeline patterns. Plant Ecology and Diversity 5: 311-321.

Wiegand, T., A. Huth, S. Getzin, X. Wang, Z. Hao, S. Gunatilleke, and N. Gunatilleke. 2012. Testing the independent species arrangement assertion made by theories of stochastic geometry of biodiversity. Proceedings B 279: 3312-3320

Almiron, M., Martinez-Carretero, E. 2013. Spatial distribution of Tephrocactus aoracanthus (Lem.) Lem. in relation to shrubs in the hyperarid regions of west-central Argentina. Austral Ecology 38: 131-138.

Benot, M. -L., Bittebiere, A. -K., Ernoult, A. et al. Fine-scale spatial patterns in grassland communities depend on species clonal dispersal ability and interactions with neighbours. Journal of Ecology 101: 626-636.

Burns, S.L., Goya, J.F., Arturi, M.F. et al. 2013. Stand dynamics, spatial pattern and site quality in Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina. Forest Systems 22: 170-178.

Carrer, M., Soraruf, L., Lingua, E. 2013. Convergent space-time tree regeneration patterns along an elevation gradient at high altitude in the Alps. Forest Ecology and Management 304: 1-9.

Chung, M.Y., Chung, M.G. 2013. Significant spatial aggregation and fine-scale genetic structure in the homosporous fern Cyrtomium falcatum (Dryopteridaceae). New Phytologist 199: 663-672.

Garcia-Cervigon, Ana I.; Gazol, Antonio; Sanz, Virginia; et al. 2013. Intraspecific competition replaces interspecific facilitation as abiotic stress decreases: The shifting nature of plant-plant interactions. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 15: 226-236.

Garelli, F.M., Espinosa, M.O., Guertler, R.E. 2013. Spatial analysis of Aedes aegypti immatures in Northern Argentina: Clusters and temporal instability. Acta Tropica 128: 461-467.

Graff, P., Rositano, F., Aguiar, M.R. 2013. Changes in sex ratios of a dioecious grass with grazing intensity: the interplay between gender traits, neighbour interactions and spatial patterns. Journal of Ecology 101: 1146-1157.

Muhamed, H., Maalouf, J.-P., Michalet, R. 2013. Summer drought and canopy opening increase the strength of the oak seedlings-shrub spatial association. Annals of Forest Science 70: 345-355.

Martinez, I., Gonzalez Taboada, F., Wiegand, T. et al. 2013. Spatial patterns of seedling-adult associations in a temperate forest community. Forest Ecology and Management 296: 74-80.

Mundo, I. A., Wiegand, T., Kanagaraj, R. et al. 2013. Environmental drivers and spatial dependency in wildfire ignition patterns of northwestern Patagonia. Journal of Environmental Management 123: 77-87.

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Shen, G., Wiegand, T., Mi, X. et al. 2013. Quantifying spatial phylogenetic structures of fully stem-mapped plant communities. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4: 1132-1141.

Souza, F.M., Daher, C.F., Geraldo, A., Callaway, R.M. 2013. Strong distance-dependent effects for a spatially aggregated tropical species. Plant Ecology 214: 545-555.

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Wang, Y., Yang, X., Shi, Z. 2013. The formation of the patterns of desert shrub communities on the western Ordos plateau, China: the roles of seed dispersal and sand burial. PLOS ONE 8: e69970.

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Wiegand, T., Raventos, J., Mujica, E. et al. 2013. Spatio-temporal analysis of the effects of hurricane Ivan on two contrasting epiphytic orchid species in Guanahacabibes, Cuba. Biotropica 45: 441-449.

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    Modified: 31.01.2014   Resp.: Thorsten Wiegand     webmaster