can access here the new version of
Programita, a software for point pattern analysis
Programita is a comprehensive software package for
conducting spatial point pattern analysis in ecology.
I tailored Programita to accommodate the
needs of “real world” applications in ecology and developed the different
modules in response to my own research questions and to requests of colleagues
and students who have approached me with their specific research problems in
mind. Originally, I developed Programita for my graduate courses
“Patrones espaciales en ecología: modelos y análisis”, at the Escuela para Graduados,
Facultad de Agronomia, University Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ten years after its launch in the 2004 Oikos Mini
review (Wiegand and Moloney 2004), Programita has considerably
grown and now contains a variety of statistical methods for most of the
point pattern data types which are relevant in ecological applications,
univariate patterns (i.e., one type of points)
bivariate patterns (i.e., two types of points
such as two species of trees)
qualitatively marked patterns (i.e., one type
of point with a qualitative mark such as surviving vs. dead)
multivariate patterns (i.e., several types of
points such as a forest tree community)
multivariate patterns with a matrix of
pairwise dissimilarities between
types of points
quantitatively marked patterns (a pattern
augmented with quantitative marks such as size)
objects with finite size and real shape (cases
for which the point approximation does not hold)
offers for each of these data types the most appropriate summary statistics:
univariate patterns [pair correlation function
g(r), O-ring statistic O(r),
L-function L(r), the K2 function K2(r),
the distribution functions Dk(r)of
the distances to the kth nearest neighbor, the spherical contact
the mean distance to the kth neighbor nn(k), and
inhomogeneous g- and L-functions]
bivariate patterns [pair correlation function
O-ring statistic O12(r),
the K2 function K212(r),
the distribution functions of the distances to the kth nearest neighbor
the mean distance to the kth neighbor nn12(k)]
multivariate patterns [spatially explicit
Simpson index β(r), community mean ISAR function, species-area
multivariate patterns with
dissimilarity matrix [phylogenetic Simpson index βphy(r),
phylogenetic mark correlation function kd(r),
mean phylogenetic ISAR function , mean rISAR function]
qualitatively marked patterns
[mark connection functions pij(r)
and various test functions based on pair correlation or K-functions]
quantitatively marked patterns
[various normalized and non-normalized mark correlation functions kt(r)]
objects with finite size and
real shape [g(r), L(r), g12(r),
and the most important null
models for ecological applications, which often allow for
consideration of an spatially-varying intensity function λ(x), and a variety
of point process models describing clustering.
allows you to
Requests for Programita and a draft version of the user manual (with
extensive examples) can be soon made here. Programita will be freely available from this site.
Extending point pattern analysis for objects of finite size and irregular shape
The Programita software allows you to perform analysis analogous to
point-pattern analysis which considers the finite size and irregular shape of
objects (e.g., plants) and to compare the results with that of the conventional
point approximation. The plants are approximated by using an underlying grid and
may occupy several adjacent grid cells depending on their size and shape. Null
models correspond to that of point pattern analysis but need to be modified to
account for the finite size and irregular shape of plants.
Left: categorical map showing
individuals of two shrub species. Right: conventional point approximation
where each shrub is approximated by its centre of mass.
Here you can download my
article describing the analysis of objects of finite size and irregular shape:
Wiegand, T., Kissling, W.D.,
Cipriotti, P.A., and Aguiar, M.R. 2006. Extending point pattern analysis to
objects of finite size and irregular shape.
Journal of Ecology 94: 825-837
Abstract and pdf
Publications that use Programita
Wiegand T., and K. A. Moloney 2004. Rings, circles and null-models for point
pattern analysis in ecology. Oikos 104: 209-229.
Camarero, J., Gutiérrez, E., Fortin, M. 2005. Spatial patterns of tree
recruitment in a relict population of Pinus uncinata. Forest expansion through
stratified diffusion. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1979-1992
Cipriotti, P. A. and R. M. Aguiar. 2005. Effects of grazing on patch structure
in a semi-arid two-phase vegetation mosaic. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:
Jepsen, J.U., C.J. Topping, P. Odderskær, P.N. Andersen. 2005. Evaluating
consequences of land-use strategies on wildlife populations using
multiple-species predictive scenarios. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
Minakawa N, Munga S, Atieli F, Mushinziamana E, Zhou G, Githeko AK, Yan G. 2005.
Spatial distribution of Anopheline larval habitats in the western Kenyan
highlands: effect of land cover types and topography. American Journal of
Topical Medicine and Hygiene. 73:157–165.
Riginos, C., S. J. Milton, and T. Wiegand. 2005. Context-dependent negative and
positive interactions between adult shrubs and seedlings in a semi-arid
shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:331-340.
Splechtn B E., Gratzer G, Black B A.2005. Disturbance history of a European
old-growth mixed-species forest – A spatial dendro-ecological analysis. Journal
of Vegetation Science 16: 511–522.
Birkhofer, K., J.R. Henschel, and S. Scheu. 2006. Spatial-pattern analysis in a
territorial spider: evidence for multi-scale effects. Ecography 29: 641-648.
Getzin, S., C. Dean, F. He, T. Trofymow, K. Wiegand, and T. Wiegand. 2006
Spatial patterns and competition of tree species in a chronosequence of
Douglas-fir forest on Vancouver Island. Ecography 29: 671-682
Rodriguez A, Garcia AM, Cervera F, et al. 2006. Landscape and anti-predation
determinants of nest-site selection, nest distribution and productivity in a
Mediterranean population of Long-eared Owls Asio otus. IBIS 148: 133-145
Troupin, D., R. Nathan, G. G. Vendramin. 2006. Analysis of spatial genetic
structure in an expanding Pinus halepensis population reveals development of
fine-scale genetic clustering over time. Molecular Ecology 15: 3617–3630.
Wiegand, T., Kissling, W.D., Cipriotti, P.A., and Aguiar, M.R. 2006. Extending
point pattern analysis to objects of finite size and irregular shape. Journal of
Ecology 94: 825-837.
Birkhofer, K. S. Scheu, and D. H. Wise. 2007. Small-scale spatial pattern of
web-building ppiders (Araneae) in alfalfa: relationship to disturbance from
cutting, prey availability, and intraguild interactions. Environmental
Entomology 36: 801–810.
Chung, M.Y, and J. D. Nason. 2007. Spatial demographic and genetic consequences
of harvesting within populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii.
Biological Conservation 137: 125-137
Chung, M.Y, Nash, J.N., and M.G. Chung. 2007. Effects of population succession
on demographic and genetic processes: predictions and tests in the daylily
Hemerocallis thunbergii (Liliaceae) . Molecular Ecology 16: 2816–2829.
Feagin, R.A., and X.B. Wu. 2007. The spatial patterns of functional groups and
sand dune plant community succession. Journal of Rangeland Ecology and
Management 60: 417-425
Getzin, S., and K. Wiegand. 2007. Asymmetric tree growth at the stand level:
Random crown patterns and the response to slope. Forest Ecology and Management
Hao, Z, J. Zhang, B. Song, J. Ye and B. Li. 2007. Vertical structure and spatial
associations of dominant tree species in an old-growth temperate forest. Forest
Ecology and Management 252: 1-11
Jacquemyn, H., R. Brys, K. Vandepitte, O. Honnay, I. Roldán-Ruiz and T. Wiegand.
2007. A spatially-explicit analysis of seedling recruitment in the terrestrial
orchid Orchis purpurea. New Phytologist 176: 448–459
Lee, A. C, R. M. Lucas. 2007. A LiDAR-derived canopy density model for tree stem
and crown mapping in Australian forests. Remote Sensing of Environment 111:
Ramsay, P. M., and R M. Fotherby. 2007. Implications of the spatial pattern of
Vigur's Eyebright (Euphrasia vigursii) for heathland management. Basic and
Applied Ecology 8: 242-251
Stockholm, D., R. Benchaouir, J. Picot, P. Rameau, T. M. A. Neildez, G. Landini,
C. Laplace-Builhé, and A. Paldi. 2007. The origin of phenotypic heterogeneity in
a clonal cell population in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2007; 2(4): e394.
Watson, D.M., D. A. Roshier, and T. Wiegand. 2007. Spatial ecology of a
parasitic shrub: patterns and predictions. Austral Ecology 32: 359-369.
Wiegand, T, C.V.S. Gunatilleke, and I.A.U.N. Gunatilleke. 2007. Species
associations in a heterogeneous Sri Lankan Dipterocarp forest. The American
Naturalist 170 E77–E95.
Wiegand, T, C.V.S. Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. Gunatilleke, and T. Okuda. 2007.
Analyzing the spatial structure of a Sri Lankan tree species with multiple
scales of clustering. Ecology 88: 3088–3102.
Baldi, G, MD Nosetto, R Aragón, F Aversa, JM Paruelo, and E.G. Jobbágy. 2008.
Long-term Satellite NDVI Data Sets: Evaluating Their Ability to Detect Ecosystem
Functional Changes in South America. Sensors 8: 5397-5425.
Blanco, P.D., C. M. Rostagno, H. F. del Valle, A. M. Beeskow, and T. Wiegand.
2008. Grazing impacts in vegetated dune fields: predictions from spatial pattern
analysis. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61: 194-203
Chung, M. Y. & Chung, M. G. 2008: Conservation genetics of the endangered
terrestrial orchid Pogonia minor in South Korea. Annales Botanici Fennici 45:
Chung, M. Y. 2008. Variation in demographic and fine-scale genetic structure
with population-history stage of Hemerocallis taeanensis (Liliaceae) across the
landscape. Ecological Research 23: 83-90.
Chung, M. Y., and C.-W. Park. 2008. Fixation of alleles and depleted levels of
genetic variation within populations of the endangered lithophytic orchid
Amitostigma gracile (Orchidaceae) in South Korea: implications for conservation.
Plant Systematics and Evolution 272:119-130.
De Luis, M., J. Raentós, T. Wiegand, and J. C. González-Hidalgo. 2008. Temporal
and spatial differentiation in seedling emergence may promote species
coexistence in Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Ecography 31: 620-629
Djossa, B.A., Fahr, J., Wiegand, T., Ayihouénou, B.E., Kalko, E.K.V., and B. A.
Sinsin. 2008 Land use impact on Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaerten. stand
structure and distribution patterns: a comparison of Biosphere Reserve of
Pendjari in Atacora district in Benin. Agroforestry Systems 72: 205-220.
Felinks, B. and T. Wiegand. 2008. Analysis of spatial pattern in early stages of
primary succession on former lignite mining sites. Journal of Vegetation Science
Getzin, S., T. Wiegand, K. Wiegand, and F. He. 2008. Heterogeneity influences
spatial patterns and demographics in forest stands. Journal of Ecology 96:
Giesselmann, U.C., T. Wiegand, J. Meyer, R. Brandl, and M. Vogel. 2008. Spatial
patterns in the sociable weaver (Philetairus socius). Austral Ecology 32:359 -
Lawes, M.J.; Griffiths, M.E.; Midgley, J.J.; Boudreau, S.; Eeley, H.A.C. and C.
A. Chapman. 2008. Tree spacing and area of competitive influence do not scale
with tree size in an African rainforest. Journal of Vegetation Science 19:
Meyer, K.M., Ward, D., Wiegand, K. & Moustakas, A. 2008. Multi-proxy evidence
for competition between savanna woody species. Perspectives in Ecology,
Evolution and Systematic 10: 63-72
Moustakasa, A, K. Wiegand, S. Getzin, D. Ward, K. M. Meyer, M. Guenther, and
K.-H. Mueller. 2008. Spacing patterns of an Acacia tree in the Kalahari over a
61-year period: How clumped becomes regular and vice versa. Acta Oecologica
Rosental, G., and D. Lederbogen. 2008. Response of the clonal plant Apium repens
(Jacq.) Lag. to extensive grazing. FLORA 203:141-151.
Schmidt, J. P. 2008. Sex ratio and spatial pattern of males and females in the
dioecious sandhill shrub, Ceratiola ericoides ericoides (Empetraceae) Michx.
Plant Ecology: 196: 281-288.
Biganzoli, F., T. Wiegand and W.B. Batista. 2009. Fire-mediated interactions
between shrubs in a South American temperate savannah. Oikos 118: 1383-1395
Fajardo, A. and M. E. Gonzalez. 2009. Replacement patterns and species
coexistence in an Andean Araucaria-Nothofagus forest. Journal of Vegetation
Science 20: 1176–1190
Jacquemyn, H., Wiegand, T., Vandepitte, K., Brys, R., Roldán-Ruiz, I. and O.
Honnay. 2009. Multi-generational analysis of spatial structure in the deceptive
orchid Orchis mascula. Journal of Ecology 97:206–216.
McCormick, MK, Whigham, DF, O’Neill, JP, Becker, JJ, Werner, S., Taylor, DL,
Rasmussen, HN, Bruns, TD. 2009. Abundance and distribution of Corallorhiza
odontorhiza reflects variations in climate and ectomycorrhizae. Ecological
Melles, S, D Badzinski, MJ Fortin, F Csillag, and K Lindsay. 2009. Disentangling
habitat and social drivers of nesting patterns in songbirds. Landscape Ecology
Munroe, D.M., and T. Noda. 2009. Spatial pattern of rocky intertidal barnacle
recruitment: comparison over multiple tidal levels and years. Journal of the
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89 : 345-353
Pereira, M., Figueiredo, D. 2009. Effects of the Alqueva dam reservoir on the
distribution of Steppe Birds. Physical Geography, 30: 43-63.
Rayburn, A. and A. Schulte. 2009. Landscape change in an agricultural watershed
in the U.S. Midwest. Landscape and Urban Planning 93: 132-141
Rossi, J.-P., Samalens, J.-C., Guyon, D., van Halder, I., Jactel, H., Menassieu,
P., and D. Piou. 2009. Multiscale spatial variation of the bark beetle Ips
sexdentatus damage in a pine plantation forest (Landes de Gascogne, Southwestern
France). Forest Ecology and Management 257:1551-1557
Salinas-Melgoza, A., V. Salinas-Melgoz, and Katherine Renton. 2009. Factors
Influencing Nest Spacing of a Secondary Cavity-Nesting Parrot: Habitat
Heterogeneity and Proximity of Conspecifics. The Condor 111:305–313
Schtickzelle, N., Fjerdingstad, E.J., Chaine, A., and J. Clobert, 2009.
Cooperative social clusters are not destroyed by dispersal in a ciliate. BMC
Evolutionary Biology, 9, 251
Wiegand, T, A. Huth., and I. Martínez. 2009. Recruitment in tropical tree
species: revealing complex spatial patterns. The American Naturalist 174: E106 -
Xu, X., T.D. Harwood, M. Pautasso, and M.J. Jeger. 2009. Spatio-temporal
analysis of an invasive plant pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum) in England and
Wales. Ecography 32:504 - 516
Yu, H. T. Wiegand, X. Yang, and L. Ci. 2009. The impact of fire and
density-dependent mortality on the spatial patterns of a pine forest in the
Hulun Buir sandland, Inner Mongolia, China. Forest Ecology and Management 257:
Zhang, J., Z. Hao, I-f. Sun, B. Song, J. Ye, B. Li, and X. Wang. 2009. Density
dependence on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern
China. Annuals of Forest Science 66: 205-213
Zhu, Y., X. Mi, H. Ren and K. Ma 2009.Density dependence is prevalent in a
heterogeneous subtropical forest. Oikos 119: 109-119
Augspurger C., Karwautz C., Mußmann M., Daims H. & Battin T.J. 2010. Drivers of
bacterial colonization patterns in stream biofilms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Batllori, E., J. J. Camarero, and E. Gutierrez. 2010. Current regeneration
patterns at the tree line in the Pyrenees indicate similar recruitment processes
irrespective of the past disturbance regime
Birkhofer, K., S. Scheu, and T. Wiegand. 2010. Assessing spatiotemporal
predator-prey patterns in heterogeneous habitats. Basic and Applied Ecology
Castagneri, D., E. Lingua., G. Vacchiano., P. Nola and R. Motta. 2010.
Diachronic analysis of individual-tree mortality in a Norway spruce stand in the
eastern Italian Alps. Annals of Forest Science 67: 304
Fajardo, A. and E.J.B. McIntire. 2010. Merged trees in second-growth,
fire-origin forests in Patagonia, Chile: positive spatial association patterns
and their ecological implications. American Journal of Botany 97:1424-1430
Fedriani, J.M. T. Wiegand, and M. Delibes. 2010. Spatial pattern of adult trees
and the mammal-generated seed rain in the Iberian pear. Ecography 33: 545-555
Field, D L, D J Ayre, R J Whelan and A G Young. 2010. Patterns of hybridization
and asymmetrical gene flow in hybrid zones of the rare Eucalyptus aggregata and
common E. rubida. Heredity
Hanan, E.J., Ross, M.S., Ruiz, P.L. and J.P. Sah. 2010 Multi-Scaled
Grassland-Woody Plant Dynamics in the Heterogeneous Marl Prairies of the
Southern Everglades. Ecosystems 13, 1256-1274.
Jacquemyn, H., P. Endels, O. Honnay, and T. Wiegand. 2010. Spatio-temporal
analysis of seedling recruitment, mortality and persistence into later life
stages in the rare Primula vulgaris. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 431–440
Jacquemyn, H., P. Endels, O. Honnay, and T. Wiegand. 2010. Spatio-temporal
analysis of seedling recruitment, mortality and persistence into later life
stages in the rare Primula vulgaris. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:431–440
Linares, J. C.; Camarero, J. J.; Bowker, M. A.; Ochoa, V., and J. A. Carreira.
2010. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality
following drought events in Abies pinsapo. Oecología 164: 1107-1119.
López, R.P. 2010. Spatial pattern analysis of dominant species in the Prepuna:
Gaining insight into community dynamics in the semi-arid, subtropical Andes.
Journal of Arid Environments 74:1534-1539
Martínez, I., T. Wiegand, F. Glez. Taboada, and J. R. Obeso. 2010. Spatial
associations among tree species in a temperate forest community in North-western
Spain. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 456-465
Mencuccini, M. et al. 2010. A quantitative and statistically robust method for
the determination of xylem conduit spatial distribution. American Journal of
Botany 97: 1247-1259
Myster, R. W. and M. P. Malahy 2010. Tornado effects on damage, resprouting and
spatial heterogeneity in the Cross Timbers ecotone of Oklahoma, USA. Journal of
Plant Ecology 3: 157-163
Nakagawa, M. Fine-scale genetic structure within plots of Polygalareinii (Polygalaceae)
having an ant-dispersal seed. 2010. Journal of Plant Research 123:355-362
Pringle RM, Doak DF, Brody AK, Jocqué R, and TM Palmer. 2010. Spatial Pattern
Enhances Ecosystem Functioning in an African Savanna. PLoS Biol 8(5)
Raventós, J., T. Wiegand, and M. De Luis. 2010. The spatial segregation
hypothesis works: nine-year survivorship data in a Mediterranean fire-prone
shrubland show that interspecific and density-dependent spatial interactions
dominate. Ecology 91:2110-2120
Schöning, C., C. Csuzdi, W. Kinuthia, J. O. Ogutu. 2010. Influence of driver ant
swarm raids on earthworm prey densities in the Mount Kenya forest: implications
for prey population dynamics and colony migrations. Insectes Sociaux 57:1, 73-82
Svoboda, M., et al. 2010. Natural development and regeneration of a Central
European montane spruce forest. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 707-714.
Szewczyk, J. and Szewczyk. J. 2010. Spatial and temporal variability of natural
regeneration in a temperate old-growth forest. Annals of Forest Science 67:
Wang, X., T. Wiegand, Z. Hao, B. Li, J. Ye, and J. Zhang. 2010. Species
associations in an old-growth temperate forest in north-eastern China. Journal
of Ecology 98:674–686 .
Zhang ZH, Hu G, Zhu JD, Luo DH, Ni J. 2010. Spatial patterns and interspecific
associations of dominant tree species in two old-growth karst forests, SW China.
Ecological Research,25: 1151-1160
Zhu Y, Mi XC, Ren H, Ma KP. 2010. Density dependence is prevalent in a
heterogeneous subtropical forest. Oikos, 119: 109–119.
Alvarez L, Epstein HE, Li J, and G. Okin. 2012. Spatial patterns of grasses and
shrubs in an arid grassland environment. Ecosphere 2:art103
Chen, J., J. Liu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, and X. Yu. 2011. The structure and spatial
patterns of three desert shrub communities in the western Ordos Plateau:
Implications for biodiversity conservation. Journal of Food, Agriculture &
Environment 9: 714-722.
Chung, M. Y., J. D. Nason, M. G. Chung. Significant demographic and fine-scale
genetic structure in expanding and senescing populations of the terrestrial
orchid Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany
Getzin, S., M. Worbes, T. Wiegand and K. Wiegand. 2011. Size dominance regulates
tree spacing more than competition within height classes in tropical Cameroon.
Journal of Tropical Ecology 27: 93-102
Gurevitz JM, Ceballos LA, Gaspe MS, Alvarado-Otegui JA, Enríquez GF, et al.
2011. Factors Affecting Infestation by Triatoma infestans in a Rural Area of the
Humid Chaco in Argentina: A Multi-Model Inference Approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Gouwakinnou, G. N., Lykke, A. M., Djossa, A. B., Sinsin, B. 2011. Folk
perception of sexual dimorphism, sex ratio and spatial repartition: implications
for population dynamics of Sclerocarya birrea [(A.Rich) Hochst] populations in
Benin, West Africa. Agroforestry Systems 82: 25-35
Lamedica, S., Lingua, E., Popa, I., Motta, R. & Carrer, M. 2011. Spatial
structure in four Norway spruce stands with different management history in the
Alps and Carpathians. Silva Fennica 45: 865–873.
Raventós, J., E. Mujica, T. Wiegand, and A. Bonet. 2011. Analyzing the spatial
structure of Broughtonia cubensis (Orchidaceae) populations in the dry forests
of Guanahacabibes, Cuba. Biotropica 43: 173-182
Vacchiano, G., D. Castagneri, F. Meloni, E. Lingu, R. Motta. 2011. Point pattern
analysis of crown-to-crown interactions inmountain forests. Procedia
Environmental Sciences 7: 269–274
Castilla, A.R., Wiegand, T., Alonso, C. et al. 2012. Disturbance-dependent spatial distribution of sexes in a gynodioecious understory shrub. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 405-413.
Choo, J., Juenger, T.E., Simpson, B.B. 2012. Consequences of frugivore-mediated seed dispersal for the spatial and genetic structures of a neotropical palm. Molecular Ecology 21: 1019-1031.
Fischer, M. A., Di Bella, C. M., Jobbagy, E. G. 2012. Fire patterns in central semiarid Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 78: 161-168.
Garbarino, M., E. Borgogno Mondino, E. Lingua, T.A. Nagel, V. Dukić, Z. Govedar, and R. Motta. 2012. Gap disturbances and regeneration patterns in a Bosnianold-growth forest: a multispectral remote sensingand ground-based approach. Annals of Forest Science 69:617 – 625
Goiran, S.B., Aranibar, J.N., Gomez, M.L. 2012. Heterogeneous spatial distribution of traditional livestock settlements and their effects on vegetation cover in arid groundwater coupled ecosystems in the Monte Desert (Argentina). Journal of Arid Environments 87: 188-197.
Herrero-Jauregui, C., Sist, P., Casado, M.A. 2012. Population structure of two low-density neotropical tree species under different management systems. Forest Ecology and Management 280: 31-39.
Jacquemyn, H., R Brys, O. Honnay, I. Roldán-Ruiz, B. Lievens, and T. Wiegand. 2012. Non-random distribution of orchids reflects different mycorrhizal association patterns in a hybrid zone of three Orchis species. New Phytologist 193: 454-464
Jacquemyn, H., R. Brys, B. Lievens, and T. Wiegand. 2012. Spatial variation in below-ground seed germination and divergent mycorrhizal associations correlate with spatial segregation of three co-occurring orchid species. Journal of Ecology 100: 1328-1337
Kay, J.N., M.W. Chu, and J.R. Sanes. 2012. MEGF10 and MEGF11 mediate homotypic interactions required for mosaic spacing of retinal neurons. Nature 483: 465–469
La Manna, L., Matteucci, S.D. 2012. Spatial and temporal patterns at small scale in Austrocedrus chilensis diseased forests and their effect on disease progression. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1487-1499.
Lan, G., Getzin, S., Wiegand, T. et al. 2012. Spatial distribution and interspecific associations of tree species in a tropical seasonal rain forest of China. PLOS ONE 7: e46074.
Ledo, A., Montes, F., Condes, S. 2012. Different spatial organisation strategies of woody plant species in a montane cloud forest. Acta Oecologia 38: 49-57.
Marzano R, Lingua E, and M. Garbarino. 2012. Post-fire effects and short-term regeneration dynamics following high-severity crown fires in a Mediterranean forest. iForest 5: 93-100.
Myster, R.W. and M.P. Malahy. 2012. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling. Int. J. Trop. Biol. 60: 1015-1023
Niggemann, M.,T. Wiegand, J.J. Robledo-Arnuncio, and R. Bialozyt. 2012. Marked point pattern analysis on genetic paternity data for estimation and uncertainty assessment of pollen dispersal kernels. Journal of Ecology 100: 264-276.
Paffetti, D., Travaglini, D., Buonamici, A. et al. 2012. The influence of forest management on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand structure and genetic diversity. Forest Ecology and Management 284: 34-44.
Pillay, T., Ward, D. 2012. Spatial pattern analysis and competition between Acacia karroo trees in humid savannas. Plant Ecology 213: 1609-1619.
Queenborough, S.A., Metz, M.R., Wiegand, T. et al. 2012. Palms, peccaries and perturbations: widespread effects of small-scale disturbance in tropical forests. BMC Ecology 12: Article Number: 3.
Raventós, J., T. Wiegand, F. T. Maestre, and M. De Luis. 2012. A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire. Acta Oecologica 38: 17-23.
Rayburn A. P. and T. Wiegand. 2012. Individual Species-Area Relationships and spatial patterns of species diversity in a Great Basin, semi-arid shrubland. Ecography 35:341-347.
Rodríguez-Pérez, J., T. Wiegand, and A. Traveset. 2012. Adult proximity and frugivore activity structure plant populations – spatial patterns after the disperser’s loss. Functional Ecology 26: 1221-1229.
Vercken, E., B. Sinervo, and J. Clobert. 2012. The importance of a good neighborhood: dispersal decisions in juvenile common lizards are based on social environment. Behavioral Ecology 23: 1059-1067.
Wang, Y., Camarero, J.J., Luo, T. et al. 2012. Spatial patterns of Smith fir alpine treelines on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau support that contingent local conditions drive recent treeline patterns. Plant Ecology and Diversity 5: 311-321.
Wiegand, T., A. Huth, S. Getzin, X. Wang, Z. Hao, S. Gunatilleke, and N. Gunatilleke. 2012. Testing the independent species arrangement assertion made by theories of stochastic geometry of biodiversity. Proceedings B 279: 3312-3320
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